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The ability to share another person’s feelings: About empathy


The ability to share another person’s feelings: About empathy

The ability of empathy includes different competences: being infected by emotions, the adoption of another person’s perspective and the capability to understand the social context. All three competences must be learned through social experiences. A theory of the empathic process has to describe, how it is possible to experience emotions and phantasies of another person in the self as one’s own and to recognize them as belonging to the other. The theoretically founded attempt to differentiate between self-perception and the perception of the other proves necessarily to reach an impasse. A constructivistic hypothesis seems to be more appropriate here, that conceives empathy as a personal draft. This draft is directed by one’s own inner objects and by concrete experiences with the other as well. In the psychoanalytic dialogue both participants, patient and analyst, develop their empathic drafts and try to reach through them an understanding.

 Forum der Psychoanalyse

March 1998, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Einfühlung: Über Empathie

  • Jürgen KörnerForum der Psychoanalyse
  • March 1998, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as
  • Einfühlung: Über Empathie
  • Authors
  • Authors and affiliations
  • Jürgen Körner

The current study examines changes over time in a commonly used measure of dispositional empathy. A cross-temporal meta-analysis was conducted on 72 samples of American college students who completed at least one of the four subscales (Empathic Concern, Perspective Taking, Fantasy, and Personal Distress) of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) between 1979 and 2009 (total

N= 13,737).

Overall, the authors found changes in the most prototypically empathic subscales of the IRI: Empathic Concern was most sharply dropping, followed by Perspective Taking. The IRI Fantasy and Personal Distress subscales exhibited no changes over time. Additional analyses found that the declines in Perspective Taking and Empathic Concern are relatively recent phenomena and are most pronounced in samples from after 2000.

Keywords

empathy, temporal change, meta-analysis

Recent psychological research recognizes that people are inextricably linked to their social environments and to those around them. For example, people report a stronger preference for spending time with others rather than being alone and do so for most of their waking hours (Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004). Moreover, people are more likely to experience a wide variety of health problems when lonely or isolated (see Cacioppo & Patrick, 2008). However, this is a paradox of sorts: Although people cannot seem to live without one another, they also some-times cheat and manipulate each other, are physically aggressive and verbally offensive, lie, steal, and exhibit several other socially deleterious tendencies. Given the prevalence of conflicted, antisocial, and otherwise unpleasant interactions with other people, researchers have been interested in factors that promote cooperative, prosocial, and satisfying relationships. Our focus in this article is specifically on empathy. In general, empathy seems to enable people to relate to others in a way that promotes cooperation and unity rather than conflict and isolation. Thus, an examination of potential changes in empathy over time affords new insights into how and why people help and relate positively to one another. Temporal changes in empathy might help explain certain interpersonal and societal trends that suggest people today are not as empathic as previous generations. In the current article, we use cross-temporal meta-analytic methods to examine changes over time in American college students’ dispositional empathy scores. We do so by using the time-lag method, which separates the effects of birth cohort from age by analysing samples of people of the same age at different points in time. In this study, we compare college students from the late 1970s and early 1980s to college students in the 1990s and 2000s. By studying college students at each of these time periods, we are able to collect data from people who are from the same age group but different  birth cohorts. Birth cohorts can be seen as sociocultural milieus (Stewart & Healy, 1989; Twenge, 2000), in that children growing up in the 1970s in the United States were exposed to different sociocultural norms than those growing up in the 2000s, despite being physically located in the same country. The logic underlying this approach is similar to that used in cross-cultural psychology to examine similarities and differences in the self-construals, traits, and behaviors of  people across different sociocultural regions of the world (e.g., Choi, Nisbett, & Norenzayan, 1999; Heine & Lehman, 1997; Markus & Kitayama, 1991), except that we instead assess differences between birth cohort groups (rather than cultures). Several studies have used this method to find  birth cohort differences in traits such as anxiety, self-esteem,

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA

Corresponding Author:

Sara H. Konrath, University of Michigan, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104Email: skonrath@isr.umich.edu

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Wednesday Memes….. — Freedom Is Just Another Word…


Wednesday Memes….. — Freedom Is Just Another Word…
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Countering hate speech through arts and arts education: Addressing intersections and policy implications – Tuula Jääskeläinen, 2020


Hate speech has become a growing topic of discussion and debate on a global scale, especially as advances in the internet transform communication on many levels…

Source: Countering hate speech through arts and arts education: Addressing intersections and policy implications – Tuula Jääskeläinen, 2020

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Of this group of Jewish children (4-17 years old) from Deventer, The Netherlands, only the girl in the white dress survived the Holocaust


CHILDREN IN SHADOW ::: CHILDREN IN WAR

Image


S Uzzell  I AM JUDEN@StephenUzzell2·Of this group of Jewish children (4-17 years old) from Deventer, The Netherlands, only the girl in the white dress survived the #Holocaust.

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Moments before Being Gassed at Auschwitz… My dear ones


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„All My Mothers“ -The Story of Yehudith Kleinman


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1Th2x_suqU


ALL MY MOTHERS“ -THE STORY OF YEHUDITH KLEINMAN1.

KLEINMAN WAS BORN IN VENICE IN 1939; HER MOTHER AND GRANDMOTHER MOVED TO MILAN SHORTLY THEREAFTER. IN JANUARY 1944, SHE WAS TAKEN TO A CONVENT FOR SAFETY, WHERE SHE WAS HIDDEN AND RAISED AS A CHRISTIAN. AFTER THE WAR, YEHUDITH HAD TO MAKE A FATEFUL CHOICE – TO REMAIN AT THE CONVENT, OR TO IMMIGRATE TO ISRAEL AS A JEW. SHE SPENT SEVERAL MONTHS IN A CHILDREN’S HOME IN SELVINO, IN NORTHERN ITALY. YEHUDITH GREW UP IN ISRAEL, JOINED THE IDF AND BECAME A TEACHER. SHE HAS LIVED MUCH OF HER ADULT LIFE IN KFAR SABA, AND IS THE MOTHER OF TWO CHILDREN. LINK – HTTP://WWW.YADVASHEM.ORG/EDUCATION

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Klara Boda – A child with 2 fluffy toys. — History of Sorts


Klara Boda- just a child Klara Boda, just a child with 2 fluffy toys. Klara Boda, just a child who wanted to go to school Klara Boda, just a child who wanted to be a princess. Klara Boda, just a child whose live was really not complicated. Klara Boda, all she needed was love and […]

Klara Boda – A child with 2 fluffy toys. — History of Sorts

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Ocasio-Cortez, Omar, Pressley, and Tlaib Lead Call for UN Probe Into Alleged DHS Human Rights Abuses


„Our government cannot be allowed to commit human rights atrocities or escape investigation, oversight, or criticism based on its powerful geopolitical position, as it so often has.“byJessica Corbett, staff writer

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Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-Mass.) speaks as Reps. Ilhan Omar (D-Minn.), Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich), and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) hold a press conference at the U.S. Capitol on July 15, 2019. (Photo: Brendan Smialowski/AFP/Getty Images)

Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-Mass.) speaks as Reps. Ilhan Omar (D-Minn.), Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich), and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.) hold a press conference at the U.S. Capitol on July 15, 2019. (Photo: Brendan Smialowski/AFP/Getty Images)

The four first-term progressive congresswomen collectively called the Squad led a letter Friday calling for independent international investigation of „recent, ongoing, and credible allegations of egregious human rights abuses by the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), its components, and its private contractors.“

„From the unwanted and unnecessary hysterectomies of migrant women, to the forced separation of children from their families, to the indefinite detention of immigrants in abhorrent conditions—the cruelty and callousness of the Department of Homeland Security under [President] Donald Trump knows no bounds,“ Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-Mass.) said in a statement Friday.

„This administration has demonstrated time and again its utter disregard for the lives of our immigrant neighbors, while our institutions of government have done little to hold it accountable—that must change. It’s time we had a truly independent, external, and impartial investigation into these alleged human rights abuses by DHS, and I am proud to partner with my sisters in service in leading this call,“ she added.https://platform.twitter.com/embed/index.html?creatorScreenName=commondreams&creatorUserId=14296273&dnt=false&embedId=twitter-widget-0&frame=false&hideCard=false&hideThread=false&id=1319729721958072323&lang=en&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commondreams.org%2Fnews%2F2020%2F10%2F23%2Focasio-cortez-omar-pressley-and-tlaib-lead-call-un-probe-alleged-dhs-human-rights&siteScreenName=commondreams&siteUserId=14296273&theme=light&widgetsVersion=ed20a2b%3A1601588405575&width=550px

Pressley was joined in demanding a probe of the agency’s actions under the president by fellow Squad members Reps. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.), Ilhan Omar (D-Minn.), and Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich.) as well as Reps. Mark Pocan (D-Wis.), Veronica Escobar (D-Texas), Alan Lowenthal (D-Calif.), and Mary Gay Scanlon (D-Pa.).

The lawmakers sent identical, detailed letters (pdf) requesting investigations to United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet, the Organization of American States‘ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, the U.N. Human Rights Council, and 14 independent experts that report to the council.

„All countries, regardless of size, power, or international standing must respect the human rights of all people and the United States is no exception,“ the letters state.
„Our government cannot be allowed to commit human rights atrocities or escape investigation, oversight, or criticism based on its powerful geopolitical position, as it so often has.“

The letters come after the Los Angeles Times reported late Thursday that „at least 19 women at a Georgia immigration facility are now alleging that a doctor performed, or pressured them to undergo, ‚overly aggressive‘ or ‚medically unnecessary‘ surgery without their consent, including procedures that affect their ability to have children.“

Although the DHS inspector general already opened an investigation into the Irwin County Detention Center in Georgia after revelations from a whistleblower about medical practices at the facility, the lawmakers and supporters of their letters emphasized the need for independent reviews of those and other allegations.https://platform.twitter.com/embed/index.html?creatorScreenName=commondreams&creatorUserId=14296273&dnt=false&embedId=twitter-widget-1&frame=false&hideCard=false&hideThread=false&id=1319714583880343552&lang=en&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commondreams.org%2Fnews%2F2020%2F10%2F23%2Focasio-cortez-omar-pressley-and-tlaib-lead-call-un-probe-alleged-dhs-human-rights&siteScreenName=commondreams&siteUserId=14296273&theme=light&widgetsVersion=ed20a2b%3A1601588405575&width=550px

„Holding the Department of Homeland Security accountable for its long history of abuses is a human rights, reproductive justice, and public health imperative—one that has been put on the backburner at the expense and detriment of our immigrant neighbors,“ declared Tlaib.

„That they have now been accused of literally removing immigrant women’s wombs is perhaps the most egregious yet,“ she said. „As a mother, as a human being, I can no longer simply continue to call for our government to investigate itself. We’ve been down that road and it has resulted in no meaningful change, only impunity and additional atrocities.“

Omar took direct aim at the president for forcibly separating families at the southern border—a widely condemned policy which, as a court filing from the ACLU revealed earlier this week, has led to at least 545 children remaining apart from parents, who haven’t yet been located. The filing says about two-thirds of the parents are believed to have been deported to their countries of origin without their children.

„There can be no question now: The president of the United States oversaw massive human rights abuses within our own country, against children no less,“ Omar said. „This was child abuse on a massive scale. It is clear that the administration itself does not have the ability to hold itself accountable in a transparent or impartial matter.“https://platform.twitter.com/embed/index.html?creatorScreenName=commondreams&creatorUserId=14296273&dnt=false&embedId=twitter-widget-2&frame=false&hideCard=false&hideThread=false&id=1319731495032897536&lang=en&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commondreams.org%2Fnews%2F2020%2F10%2F23%2Focasio-cortez-omar-pressley-and-tlaib-lead-call-un-probe-alleged-dhs-human-rights&siteScreenName=commondreams&siteUserId=14296273&theme=light&widgetsVersion=ed20a2b%3A1601588405575&width=550px

The letters are endorsed by 53 groups, including Project South and the Government Accountability Project, which represent the Georgia whistleblower. The Government Accountability Project also represents „eight other whistleblowers within the DHS immigration system whose disclosures about practices that endanger the lives of immigrants in detention helped spur this call for intervention by the United Nations,“ noted staff attorney and International Program deputy director Samantha Feinstein.

„Unfortunately their warnings not only failed to prompt accountability and reform, but the DHS and its contractors revealed their indifference at best, and willful disregard at worst, to the lives of immigrants in detention,“ Feinstein said. „We applaud the calls by members of Congress for the United Nations to investigate the human rights violations revealed by whistleblowers, whose disclosure[s] are essential to ensuring that fundamental human rights are enforced.“Our work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License. Feel free to republish and share widely.

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Abortion Praised as Sacrament in Shockingly Blasphemous Music Video – Protestia —


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Paying the ultimate price for helping others. — History of Sorts


Maastricht is one of my favourite cities. I grew up only about 10 miles away from it and would have visited it numerous times. It is, the most south eastern city in the Netherlands and is well known for its close proximity to Belgium and Germany. It is also the the home of violin virtuoso […]

Paying the ultimate price for helping others. — History of Sorts